And elucidating

Prochloraz (an imidazole), epoxiconazole, difenoconazole, tebuconazole and myclobutanil (four triazoles) are the DMI fungicides that have been registered for the control of anthracnose since 2012 in China. truncatum isolates to five commonly used DMIs, and assessed the risk of resistance of C. The results indicated that natural populations of C. Treatment of a clinically relevant plant-pathogenic fungus with an agricultural azole causes cross-resistance to medical azoles and potentiates caspofungin efficacy. However, the sensitivity to different DMIs has never been determined for C. truncatum were only sensitive to prochloraz, epoxiconazole and difenoconazole, but insensitive to tebuconazole and myclobutanil. Google Scholar Serfling, A., Wohlrab, J., and Deising, H. Therefore, the basis of this sensitivity differentiation to DMIs in C. The information of fungicides, including the active ingredients, the distributors, and the concentrations used in this study are listed in Supplementary Table S1. For bioassays, a stock solution of 10 g/liter active ingredient of each fungicide was made in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and stored at 4°C. After 10–15 days at 28°C in the dark, cultures growing from the plugs were transferred to new PDA plates containing 0.75 μg/ml prochloraz. This step was repeated until there was no significant difference in the linear growth of fast growing sectors on the PDA plates with or without 0.75 μg/ml prochloraz.

For conidia production, a 4-day-old colony was placed under a black light lamp for 7 days (Fernando et al., 2000). To obtain mutants with high resistance to prochloraz, the procedure was also performed with six additional concentrations of prochloraz (3, 5, 6, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml) (Serfling et al., 2007). doi: 10.1067/mjd.2000.113691 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Pang, Z. The same procedure was used to generate mutants resistant to epoxiconazole with 16, 32, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 μg/ml and to difenoconazole with 8, 16, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 μg/ml. Conidia were harvested by rinsing the sporulating colonies on each plate with 10 ml of distilled water. Conidia in the resulting suspension were quantified with a hemacytometer.

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