Lactate dating breast
We hypothesize that lactagenesis for carcinogenesis is the explanation and purpose of the Warburg Effect.
Accordingly, therapies to limit lactate exchange and signaling within and among cancer cells should be priorities for discovery.
Still, the role of the Warburg Effect in cancer has neither been explained nor understood for nearly a century.
Herein, we use lessons learned in exercise physiology and metabolism to propose that augmented lactate production (‘lactagenesis’), initiated by gene mutations, is the reason and purpose of the Warburg Effect and that dysregulated lactate metabolism and signaling are the key elements in carcinogenesis.
Lactate-producing (‘lactagenic’) cancer cells are characterized by increased aerobic glycolysis and excessive lactate formation, a phenomenon described by Otto Warburg 93 years ago, which still remains unexplained.
While the Warburg Effect is a hallmark of cancer, the study of cancer cell metabolism was diverted when investigators began to employ genomic techniques to better understand cancer biology.
We lament that the lack of understanding about the meaning and role of the Warburg Effect in cancer did not progress in parallel, a history that may have impeded the full comprehension of cancer biology, and, consequently, the development of effective therapeutic approaches abased on understanding of the roles of lactate in promoting carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis.